A team of scientists has built a heat engine out of a single atom.
Heat engines, like steam engines or internal combustion engines, convert heat into motion. To create the minuscule engine, physicist Johannes Roßnagel of University of Mainz and colleagues heated and cooled a calcium ion with an electric field and a laser, causing it to move and do a tiny amount of work. They report their results in the April 15 Science.
Read more about this and other scaled-down engines in “Ultrasmall engines bend second law of thermodynamics.”